Matthew Cagle- Age of Man
Kent Stratton- Brian Boru
Dylan Holzemer - Charles the Bald
Donnie Garrison- 40 years of Rest
Chris Phinney- Battle of Eddington

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40 Years of Rest- The Forty Years Rest is a moniker given to the period of Viking history in Ireland between roughly 874 and 914. Following the death of Ivar, the Viking king of Dublin in 873, the kingdom entered a period of instability. Viking settlement of England, Iceland and the Danelaw increased, as well as raiding in wealthy Francia. Viking activity did not cease, merely slow down in Ireland and Scotland as Vikings either migrated or assimilated.

Ages of Man- The age of man is the idea that humans have lived through different stages of life or ages where technology or life was different. The Greeks called it Hesiod’s Five ages Golden, Sliver, Bronze, Herioc, Iron ages, This where the different ages of life normally named for the metal that was used the most. There are also Christian and early Roman divisions of ages that are very similarly too the Greek ages.

Battle of Eddington- Occuring between May 6th-12th 878, the Battle of Eddington was fought between the Anglo-Saxon army of Alfred the Great and the Great Danish Army led by the Danish king Guthrun. Fought in present-day Edington in Wiltshire, the battle was the end result of the increasing Viking raids in England, which showed increased logistical intent to conquer rather than simply raid. Guthrun's defeat by Alfred the Great in this battle prevented the complete conquering of Wessex. In the battle, Guthrun's troops were routed back to their encampment, where they were held for two weeks. Hunger eventually led to Guthrun and his men proposing a peace trreaty, known as the 'Treaty of Wedmore'. This treaty involved surrendering hostages to Alfred, promising to leave his land, and for the heathen king Guthrun to be baptized. Lands were divided between Alfred and Guthrun and Guthrun took the name of AEthelstan. The significance of this battle was that Guthrun's conversion to Christianity legitimized his rule and showed his kingdoms that they were to be ruled by a strong Christian and not a heathen.

Brian Boru- Brian Boru was an Irish king who became king of Munster in southern Ireland in 976 after his brother, the former king, died. Boru himself died at the battle of Clontarf in 1014 where he defeated the alliance of Leinster and the Dublin Vikings. Boru is significant in Viking history because this battle is traditionally considered to be the end of the Viking Age in Ireland, though in actual fact Viking power in Ireland gradually diminished due to pressure from Irish kings and assimilation into Irish society.

Charles the Bald- Charles II (the Bald) was one of the sons of Louis the Pious and the king of West Francia after the division of the Carolingian Empire with the Treaty of Verdun. He ruled from 840 to 877, and repeatedly fought Viking raiders coming into the Seine river valley and West Francia, using various foreign policy tactics to discourage further raiding, such as
1. Bribing Viking raiders to leave (see “Danegeld”)
2. Using mercenaries and hiring Vikings to fight off other Vikings
3. Building defensive fortifications and bridges to discourage attack and make river raiding difficult.
4. Building a strong offensive infantry and cavalry force
5. Using peace talks, negotiations, and diplomacy
6. Retreating from areas of heavy raiding (depopulating)
7. Converting/assimilating Vikings into Frankish religion and culture.

Charles also fought for authority over Aquitaine with his nephew Pippin, who mistakenly brought in Vikings who took over several towns on the Garonne. These included Bordeaux, which was a Viking stronghold until the 10th century.