Montgomery Cole
Rachel Clark
Kevin Goering
Jonathan Swann
David Lewis

Please define your terms on this page and NOT on the Key terms index page.



Parataxis: Parataxis is a literary term that refers to the arrangement of phrases or clauses in an independent manner that lacks temporal or logical connections between incidents. Paratactic storytelling is a common element of oral myths, because it allows for passages or verses to be swapped or rearranged without affecting the theme or overall quality of the piece. (David)


Ragnarök: Is from Norse Mythology and is used to describe the Norse belief of future events, including specifically a great battle that will happen and thus result in the end times. It's supposedly states that this battle will be the death of Thor, Odin, Loki, Freyja (Thor Movie Gods; Memory Purposes) and other major figures. The world in the Ragnarök (stories) is said to be destroyed by the battle, natural disasters and a world wide flood resulting in the death of all man kind. Then the earth will start fresh and humanity will begin to repopulate with two new humans and the remaining gods will meet. This word comes from the Proto-Germanic words "ragna" meaning "gods" and "rök" meaning "fate" or "destiny". The literal meaning being "the fate of the gods." This word is most commonly found in the poetic edda and Snorri's Prose Edda.
(Montgomery)


Rollo of Normandy:(Haywood 80) (Oxford 31) Rollo was the the founder and first ruler of what became known as Normandy. Rollo was defeated in Francia in 900 and 911 but is given Normandy (formerly Nuestria) . He encouraged intermarriage so the locals became known as Normans. (Rachel)


Roman Iron Age: The Roman Iron Age took place from roughly 1 to 400 CE. This era begins to put Scandinavia and North Germany on the map in regards to civilizations capable of sustained trade with the Romans, evident by grave goods and archaeology. This period established the metallurgy traditions that would survive in Scandinavia up until mingling with techniques with the Carolingians (Franks) although this would be a mutual exchange rather than a direct usurping of technique. (Jonathan)



​Runes​: Runes were the primary written form of language for Scandinavians from about the second century AD till when the conversion to Christianity brought the Latin alphabet in the ninth and tenth century [Oxford 204]. Runic as a written script was not used like written forms like Latin though with its use limited to inscriptions and markers. That is not to say that runes were without merit or weight in viking society as they believed that the runes were given to man by Odin [Oxford 222]. (Kevin)


Adalward: Cleric chosen by the bishop of Bremen, from the choir, based on accolades of piousness the bishop was advised of. Adalward lead the conversion efforts in Sweden, and is attributed with large portions of the land converting. [Viking Reader #91]


Harald Bluetooth: King of Denmark. Also known as Gormsson. After an internal dispute, he was kicked out of Denmark, and later returned with the backing of Holy Roman Emperor Otto II as a newly converted Christian. Attributed with reuniting Denmark under Christian Rule. [Viking Reader #84, 96]


Harald Klak: King of Denmark in 826. Other competing kings destroyed his holdings, and he appealed to the frankish Emperor Louise the German in 826. Converted to Christianity as a result of the deal, and regained his land. [Viking Reader #7].


Anskar: Anskar was a voluntary missionary who accompanied Haral Klak back to Denmark. He was deemed the most reputable of all the monks. [Viking Reader #7]


Thangbrand: Cleric appointed by King Olaf Tryggvason to convert Iceland. Was exiled from Iceland after he murdered two bystanders during one of his conversion speeches. [Viking Reader #88, Laxardal Saga]


Althing: Summer "festival" of sorts in Iceland where markets were held and legislation drafted by a council of representatives. Marriages were often announced or annulled here. [Viking Reader #88, Laxardal Saga]


King Olaf Tryggvason: King of Norway. During his reign, he spread Christianity the further of any other Viking ruler, and built a network of connections through these converts. Particularly ruthless, portrayed as a strong warrior. [Viking Reader #85, 88, 89, 90, Laxardal Saga]


Kjartan: Native of Iceland. Originally a lover of Gudrun, he is held hostage by Tryggvason until he converts and agrees to convert Iceland. Kjartan refuses to go to convert Iceland, and is released once Christianity is finally adopted in Iceland at the Althing. Converted his followers to Christiniaty. [Laxardal Saga].


King Otto II: Holy Roman Emperor during the reign of Harald Bluetooth. [Viking Reader #96]

The Prose Edda: This a work of Viking literature by Snorri Sturrleson, in which he explains the Nordic Mythology in prose form, but has many allusions to Christian ideas as a way of combining the two.



Charles the Simple: King of the Franks until 922. Simple, as in, to the point, not dull-witted. [Wikipedia]

King Harthacanute Gorm: King of Denmark who ruled before King Harald Gormsson Bluetooth. He died in 958CE. [Viking Reader #84]