Group 6

Trevor Ramsey =Staraja Ladoga
Jayne Fouché = Treaty of Verdun
James Rose = Staraja Ladoga
Greg Jones
Alicia Arceneaux -Snorri
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Skaldic poetry:

Old Nordic verse from the Viking age can be broken into two categories: eddic or skaldic. The eddic verses were usually simple in structure and dealt with mythology or heroic content. Skaldic verse was more complex and was usually a tribute to or homage to a particular jarl or king. Furthermore, skaldic poetry is always spoken, never sung or chanted.
Much of skaldic poetry can be attributed to a specific author (called a skald). Many skalds were men of influence, power and education. This means they were often biographically noted, lending a strong degree of credit to their authoristic claims. Skaldic meter is ornate, syntax is complex, with sentences commonly interwoven, with kennings and heiti used throughout. The writing was variation and dialects of Old Norse languages, and the verse was usually a form of alliterative verse.
Forms of skaldic poetry:
  1. Drápa, a long series of stanzas (usually dróttkvætt), with a refrain (stef) at intervals.
  2. Flokkr, vísur or dræplingr, a shorter series of such stanzas without refrain.
  3. Lausavísa, a single stanza of dróttkvætt said to have been improvised impromptu for the occasion it marks.
Skalds also composed insult (níðvísur) and very occasionally, erotic verse (mansöngr).
~Alicia Arceneaux

Snorri Sturluson (1178 or 1179- 23 September 1241) was an Icelandic poet, historian, and politician most known for his works The Prose Edda and Heimskringla. Snorri was the son of Sturla, whose sons and grandchildren lent the family name of Sturlung (descendants of Sturla) to the Sturlung Age, a turbulent point in Icelandic history. Snorri was two years old when Jon Loptsson, Iceland’s most powerful and cultured leader, offered to raise him to settle a feud. Snorri spent the next sixteen years at Oddi, Loptsson’s estate and an important centre of learning in medieval Iceland. When he left Oddi, he married one of wealthiest women in Iceland and became prominent chieftan. He was elected Althing’s law-speaker in 1215 and 1222, the highest official position in the Old Icelandic Free State. Snorri led an extremely ambitious life with many enemies and disputes. After a few failed political moves, Snorri was killed while hiding in his own cellar.
Snorri is more known to us because he is mentioned in several thirteenth-century Icelandic texts. The books that he credited with include the History of the Kings of Norway (Heimskringla) and the Prose Edda, indicate a large amount of time spent gathering information on his trips to Scandinavia. Snorri is remarkable for using euhemerism to propose the idea the gods began as human war leaders and kings who were deified over time. Snorri’s Prose Edda contains four parts: The Fooling of Gylfi (Gylfaginning), a narrative of Norse mythology (Skáldskaparmál), a book of poetic language for students of skaldic poetry, and a list of verse forms (Háttatal). His Heimskringla is a history of Norwegian kings that begins with Ynglinga Saga and moves through early Scandinavian history. Snorri is also often assigned credit for the authorship of Egil’s Saga due to stylistic similarities in the writing.
~Alicia Arceneaux


Staraja Ladoga- Staraja Ladoga was the first of the wics the Scandinavians settled by the Varagian Rus. it lies on the banks of the Volkhov River. Their leader Rurik mad the city his capital in the year 862,as a merchant village. The settlement itself had multiple ethnic groups within its walls but its Hierarchy was ruled by the Scandinavians. This city would lead the Varagian Rus to settle two other wics on the Volkhov river Novgorod and Kiev. The city would remain a key trading center and contact point for the peoples of Scandinavia in what would eventually become Russia.
- James Rose

Treaty of Verdun-Ending a three year long Carolingian Civil War, the Treaty of Verdun was agreed upon in August of 843 CE. It was between three sons of Louis the Pious, son and successor of Charlemagne; founder of the Carolingian Empire. The three sons responsible for the Treaty of Verdun were Lothair I, Louis the German, and Charles the Bald. Lothair received the central portion of the empire, Louis controlled the eastern fraction, and Charles held the western segment.
-Jayne Fouché


Ulaid were a people of early Ireland whose name is given to the modern province of Ulster. In medieval texts they are also referred to as the Clanna Rudraige, meaning “descendants of Rudraige.”
Genealogists of medieval Irish trace the Ulaid’s descent from the legendary High King Rudraige mac Sithrigi. The Ulaid are features of Irish legends and historical traditions of prehistoric times, most notably in the group of sagas known as the Ulster Cycle.
~Alicia Arceneaux